General information on modules, examinations, ECTS credit points and the grading system


Legal basis: Section 2 of the Examination Procedure Regulations (PVO)

Bachelor's and Master's degree programmes are modularised, i.e. several thematically related lectures are combined into modules. In the individual modules the skills to be acquired are taught as part of the overall qualification of the particular degree programme. Each module is assigned ECTS credits (in accordance with the provisions of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)), which are acquired by attending all the lectures assigned to the module and by passing all required examinations.

ECTS credits

ECTS credits represent a unit of measure of the student's average hours of work. Hours of work include attendance at module lectures, preparation and follow-up work on learning material, time required to produce protocols, seminar papers, assignments, etc. as well as examination revision and examination attendance.

1 ECTS credit = 30 hours of work

1 semester = 30 ECTS credits = 900 hours of work

6 semesters (Bachelor) = 180 ECTS credits = 5,400 hours of work

4 semesters (Master) = 120 ECTS credits = 3,600 hours of work


Legal basis: Section 9 of the Examination Procedure Regulations (PVO)

In addition to regular attendance at lectures, students must take examinations within the modules. The purpose of the examinations is to check that the module's learning target has been achieved. Examinations may take the form of, for example, seminar papers, written tests and assignments.

If several examinations are included in a module, the individual grades achieved on successful completion of the module together form the module grade. As a rule, this grade is incorporated into the overall grade for the Bachelor's or Master's degree programme.

As all scheduled examinations must be passed to complete the degree programme, all examinations are relevant to the final degree certificate and are therefore subject to registration.

The grading system

Legal basis: Section 13 of the Examination Procedure Regulations (PVO)

The grading scale for graded examinations that have been passed ranges from 1.0 for "very good" to 4.0 for "sufficient":

1 = Very good = an excellent achievement,

2 = Good = an achievement that is well above average,

3 = Satisfactory = an average achievement


4 = Sufficient = an achievement that is sufficient despite certain deficiencies.

To differentiate between these grades it is possible to raise or lower each grade by an intermediate value of 0.3. Exceptions to this rule, however, are the grades 0.7, 4.3, 4.7 and 5.3, which are excluded.

A grade of 4.0 or worse is regarded as "not sufficient" (a result that does not meet the requirements due to a significant deficiency). Failed examinations are graded 5.0.

"Calculated" grades can also be raised or lowered by intermediate values other than 0.3. Calculated grades are formed from two or more partial grades for individual examinations, modules, etc. The (degree-specific) Examination Regulations stipulate how the partial grades are incorporated into the module grade, subject grade or overall grade. Only the first decimal place after the decimal point is taken into account here, other decimal places are deleted without being rounded up or down.

The grade is

up to 1.5 = Very good,

from 1.6 to 2.5 = Good,

from 2.6 to 3.5 = Satisfactory,

from 3.6 to 4.0 = Sufficient and

above 4.1 = Not sufficient.

Calculating the subject grade / overall grade

Legal basis: Section 14 of the Examination Procedure Regulations (PVO)

The Bachelor’s or Master’s examination is passed if all module examinations required in accordance with the degree-specific Examination Regulations and also, in the case of double-subject degree programmes, the Double-Subject Examination Regulations are passed and the thesis is passed and therefore the required number of ECTS credits has been achieved.

The degree-specific Examination Regulations stipulate which of the module grades are incorporated into the subject grade calculation and at what weighting. For instance, the subject grade can be calculated as the arithmetic average of the module grades or the module grades can be weighted with assigned ECTS credits or it may just include individual module grades.

The degree-specific Examination Regulations for single-subject degree programmes also state how the overall grade is calculated, that is, by combining the subject grade with the Bachelor's or Master´s thesis grade.

The method for calculating the overall grade for double-subject degree programmes is described in the Double-Subject Examination Regulations. The overall grade is made up of both subject grades, the grade for the Bachelor's or Master´s thesis and, if applicable, the grade for the specific field of study (only for studies in secondary education (Profil Lehramt an Gymnasien) and studies in business education (Profil Handelslehrer)).